Glands section


The endocrine system (hormones) has different glands that release various hormones. This system, similar to the nervous system helps one part of the body (the gland) to communicate with another part of the body (the target cell) to perform different functions.. The endocrine glands are important for reproduction, metabolism, growth and other functions.

This system uses hormones to control and coordinate the body’s homeostasis and regulate reproduction, energy level, growth and development, and respond to various environmental stimuli. Glands and their role in the workings of the endocrine system are as below:

Endocrine system Infographic Idea Clinics

Hormones & Their role in the workings of the endocrine system are as below:


Hormone function: Life saving hormone; functions as anti-inflammatory; regulates blood pressure , blood glucose levels  and muscle strength apart from supporting  salt and water balance


Regulates water balance, salt, and BP


Causes rapid  heart rate, promotes oxygen intake and blood flow


Maintains blood pressure along with other hormones

Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)

Hormone Function:Maintains homeostasis by regulating growth hormone release in the pituitary gland

Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH)

Hormone Function: Maintains homeostasis by regulating thyroid stimulating hormone release in the pituitary gland

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)

Hormone Function: Maintains homeostasis by regulating LH/FSH production in the pituitary gland

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)

Hormone Function: Maintains homeostasis by regulating adrenocorticotropin release in the pituitary gland

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) (vasopressin)

Hormone Function: Supports water retention  from kidneys and controls blood pressure

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

Hormone Function: It regulates levels of the steroid hormone cortisol, which isreleased from the adrenal glands.

Growth Hormone (GH)

Hormone Function: Regulates growth and development; also stimulates protein production and influences fat distribution


Hormone Function: Controls production of sex hormones, estrogen in women and testosterone in men  and supports the production of eggs and sperms.


Hormone Function: Stimulates contraction of uterus and milk ducts in the breast during pregnancy and labour.


Hormone Function: Initiates and maintains milk production in mothers; impacts sex hormone levels and interferes with periods.

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Hormone Function: Stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland

Renin and Angiotensin

Hormone function: Controls blood pressure directly and by regulating aldosterone production from the adrenal glands


Hormone Function: Red blood cell (RBC) production


Hormone Function:Raises blood sugar levels and regulates glucose homeostasis


Hormone Function:Anabolic hormone, Lowers blood glucose; promotes metabolism of glucose, protein, and fat


Hormone Function:Promotes  female sexual characteristics and reproductive development, influences functioning of uterus and  growth of breasts and protects bone health


Hormone Function:Helps proliferate endothelium (inner lining of the uterus), facilitates  fertilization; supports milk production

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Hormones Function: Important regulator of blood calcium levels along with Vitamin D

Thyroid Hormone

Hormone Function: Controls metabolism; also affects growth, maturation, nervous system activity, and metabolism

Humoral Factors

Hormone Function: Helps develop the lymphoid system


Hormone Function: Develop and maintain male sexual characteristics and promotes libido.


Hormone Function: Releases melatonin during night and facilitates sleep

Know More About Glands

Adipose tissue (body fat) although crucial for health and needed for storing and releasing energy to fuel the body, adipose tissue is also an important endocrine organ  releasing important hormones like leptins, adiponectins or aromatases etc.

The adrenal are endocrine glands at the top of each kidney. They constitute the outer adrenal cortex and inner adrenal medulla.. They produce life saving hormones like cortisol and many others like catecholamines, aldosterone and others.

The hypothalamus is a part of the brain lying below thalamus and above the pituitary to which it is connected with a stalk. the major function of the hypothalamus is to maintain homeostasis by controlling the release of hormones from the pituitary gland.

The kidneys are excretory  organs that ensure that unwanted substances and excess water are removed from the bloodstream. However, it does function as endocrine gland in some ways.  The kidneys make two main hormones, vitamin D, erythropoietin and some prostaglandins.

The ovaries produce and release eggs  for fertilisation. They also produce the female hormones oestrogen and progesterone under the influence of gonadotrophins.

The pancreas serves two important purposes, one as part of digestive system  and the other as endocrine organ producing hormones whether insulin, glucagon, somatostatin or many others.

The parathyroid glands are situated on the rear side of the thyrod, a rice grain sided gland in the neck and helps control the levels of calcium in the blood.

The pineal gland is situated in the epithalamus, where the two halves of the brain join. Pineal gland remains the major site of the body’s melatonin production.

The pituitary gland is a small pea-sized master gland and controls the activity of most endocrine systems. Pituitary gland influences the functioning of adrenal glands, thyroid gland, ovaries and testes.

The placenta is a endocrine organ of pregnancy. Placental hormones help maintain healthy pregnancy, prepare for labour and facilitate breastfeeding.

The testes are male reproductive glands that produce sperm and the hormone testosterone.  Apart from testosterone which is produced by Leydig cells, testes also produce  inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone from Sertoli cells and IGF- 3 and oestradiol from  Leydig cells.

The thyroid gland is responsible for producing thyroid hormones into the bloodstream and regulated by hypothalamic pituitary axis. The thyroid gland also produces calcitonin.

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