Diabetes Mellitus is an endocrine disorder where the body fails to utilize the sugar formed in it. Every cell in the body requires sugar for normal function. Insulin is the hormone that helps the sugar to be taken up by the cells . In case of less Insulin or if the body stops responding to Insulin, the levels of sugars in the blood shoots up. Then a person is said to be suffering from Diabetes.
Diabetes is of 2 types.
In Type 1 diabetes, the body makes little or no insulin.
In Type 2 diabetes the body does not make enough Insulin or the body does not respond to Insulin or both.
Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes :
- Weight loss
- Increased frequency of urination
- Increased thirst
- Increased tiredness
- Vision problems
- Abdominal pain
There are blood tests which are done to detect sugar levels. There are also factors like age, weight and other tests which will help your doctor to decide if you have Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes.
Regular sugar monitoring to prevent too low or high sugar.
Insulin injections or Insulin pumps to keep sugars under control.
Careful planning of meals and activity levels to balance the sugar levels so as to lead a normal healthy life.
Regular check ups
You will need to go for regular checkups with your doctor depending on your sugar control levels. Other vital parameters like BP and weight will also be checked regularly. Certain blood tests like HbA1c, Cholesterol, kidney and liver function tests will also be monitored at regular intervals. Yearly neurological, foot and eye examinations are also mandatory.
Importance of normal blood sugar levels
Uncontrolled blood sugar levels over a period of time can lead to kidney failure, nerve damage, visual problems, stroke or amputation of parts of the body.
Low blood sugar levels can cause serious problems like headache, drowsiness, sweating, increased heart rate, unconsciousness or even seizures.
Pregnancy in Type 1 Diabetics
Type 1 diabetic patients can have a normal pregnancy provided their blood sugar is controlled before and during the pregnancy. They give birth to healthy babies.